## Theory

Inquiry is a form of active learning that emphasizes questioning, data analysis, and critical thinking (Bell et al. 2005). There are five essential elements to an inquiry-based lesson.

Level 1 Inquiry/Confirmation - The teacher provides question, methodology, and solution.

Level 2 Inquiry/Structured Inquiry - Student provides solution while teacher provides question and methodology.

Level 3 Inquiry/Guided Inquiry - Student provides methodology as well as solution while teacher only provides question.

Level 4 Inquiry/Open Inquiry - Student provides question, methodology, and solution.

The inquiry levels that our investigations contain are listed in each Investigation lesson section.

- The learner engages in scientifically oriented questions.
- Learner gives priority to evidence in responding to questions.
- Learner formulates explanations from evidence.
- Learner connects explanations to scientific knowledge.
- Learner communicates and justifies explanations.

Level 1 Inquiry/Confirmation - The teacher provides question, methodology, and solution.

Level 2 Inquiry/Structured Inquiry - Student provides solution while teacher provides question and methodology.

Level 3 Inquiry/Guided Inquiry - Student provides methodology as well as solution while teacher only provides question.

Level 4 Inquiry/Open Inquiry - Student provides question, methodology, and solution.

The inquiry levels that our investigations contain are listed in each Investigation lesson section.

## Week 1

**Benchmark Lesson 1 (Calorimetry and Energy Misconceptions)**

*Overview:*Students will be introduced to calorimetry and exothermic reactions in preparation for their Investigation 1. The students will do a lab to produce an exothermic reaction using a heat pack and some water. The students will measure the temperature of the water over time and plot the temperature over time. Students will then discuss the meaning of their results and introduce the idea of measuring heat of chemical reactions. The students will also undergo a classroom wide discussion about common energy misconceptions with true-false questions led by the teacher.

*Objectives:*Students will be able to

- Understand calorimetry and how it measures the heat of chemical reactions as well as heat capacity
- Find the amount of energy in a system using data of the temperature of the system
- Understand common misconceptions about energy and know what energy is and is not

*TEKS Addressed:*Chemistry 2F: collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision

Chemistry 11B: understand the law of conservation of energy and the processes of heat transfer

Chemistry 11C: use thermochemical equations to calculate energy changes that occur in chemical reactions and classify reactions as exothermic or endothermic

**Inquiry Lesson 1 (Calorimetry Investigation)**

Students will assemble a simple calorimeter and investigate the amount of heat energy contained in various biomass fuel samples. To introduce the inquiry, student will first participate in a discussion about different types of energy. Students will be introduced to the concepts of common units of energy such as the calorie and Btu. Students will then assemble the calorimeter by placing the can upside down on the plate, putting an Erlenmeyer flask with water on top of the can, then burning the biomass materials and measuring the heat output. On the second part, students will analyze the results of the experiment by calculating the calories and Btu’s released from the various biomass materials. There will then be a group discussion about how energy was released and transferred from biomass materials during this experiment and what the potential advantages and disadvantages of extracting energy from biomass materials through combustion are.

This lesson is a Structured Inquiry - students are given the question of “How much energy is contained in various biomass materials?” and a procedure to investigate (build a calorimeter) but are not given the answer of how much energy is contained in various biomass samples.

__Objectives__Students will be able to:

- Explain how energy is released from biomass materials and how this energy is transferred (Chemistry 11B)
- Compare amounts of energy released from various biomass materials (Chemistry 11C)
- Analyze data by calculating calories and British thermal units produced by various forms of biomass (Chemistry 11D)

__TEKS Addressed__Chemistry

11B: understand the law of conservation of energy and the processes of heat transfer;

11C: use thermochemical equations to calculate energy changes that occur in chemical reactions and classify reactions as exothermic or endothermic;

11D: perform calculations involving heat, mass, temperature change, and specific heat; and

11E: use calorimetry to calculate the heat of a chemical process.

inquiry_1_handout.docx | |

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benchmark_1_powerpoint.pptx | |

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benchmark_1_handout.docx | |

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## Week 2

Investigation 2: Marble Coaster

Students will design a method to determine the kinetic energy of an object by building a roller coaster using connecting tracks and dropping a marble or car onto it. Students are presented with the question of how much energy an object has, and they come up with the method to get an answer, making this a level 3 inquiry. To make this investigation more teacher-directed (level 2 inquiry), more specific instructions can be created and provided to students in order to guide them to determine velocity at different points. Before students create their tracks and test, the procedure and hypotheses must be approved by the instructor.

Students will build a simple ramp. Using photogates to determine velocity, students will test and determine the relationships, if any are present, among different variables such as initial height, distance traveled, kinetic energy, etc. This should yield, after discussion of their findings, that the velocity is related to the vertical displacement of the object, and that students whose tracks were set at different heights have different values for velocity. (Testing the velocity at two points of the same height, once they reach maximum displacement, should yield highly similar values). Analysis of data will require students to plot and graph their values and come up with a model which describes their experimental data. Functions among the groups will be compared. Students will write justifications of the answers they came up with.

Following this will be benchmark lesson 2 during which students will relate their answers to the existing scientific model. Using this simulation, students will predict the relative amounts of potential and kinetic energy of the roller coaster at each of the benchmark spots. The simulation can run step-wise, allowing students to make a prediction for each step before proceeding to the next. This benchmark utilizes the Predict-Explain-Observe-Explain method (PEOE) as outlined by Dial et al (2009). Students will then apply the law of conservation of energy to an additional set of scenarios.

Students will be able to:

Physics Section 4

(A) generate and interpret graphs and charts describing different types of motion, including the use of real-time technology such as motion detectors or photogates;

Integrated Physics and Chemistry

(5) Science concepts. The student recognizes multiple forms of energy and knows the impact of energy transfer and energy conservation in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize and demonstrate that objects and substances in motion have kinetic energy such as vibration of atoms, water flowing down a stream moving pebbles, and bowling balls knocking down pins;

(B) demonstrate common forms of potential energy, including gravitational, elastic, and chemical, such as a ball on an inclined plane, springs, and batteries;

(D) investigate the law of conservation of energy;

*Overview*Students will design a method to determine the kinetic energy of an object by building a roller coaster using connecting tracks and dropping a marble or car onto it. Students are presented with the question of how much energy an object has, and they come up with the method to get an answer, making this a level 3 inquiry. To make this investigation more teacher-directed (level 2 inquiry), more specific instructions can be created and provided to students in order to guide them to determine velocity at different points. Before students create their tracks and test, the procedure and hypotheses must be approved by the instructor.

Students will build a simple ramp. Using photogates to determine velocity, students will test and determine the relationships, if any are present, among different variables such as initial height, distance traveled, kinetic energy, etc. This should yield, after discussion of their findings, that the velocity is related to the vertical displacement of the object, and that students whose tracks were set at different heights have different values for velocity. (Testing the velocity at two points of the same height, once they reach maximum displacement, should yield highly similar values). Analysis of data will require students to plot and graph their values and come up with a model which describes their experimental data. Functions among the groups will be compared. Students will write justifications of the answers they came up with.

**Benchmark Lesson 2**Following this will be benchmark lesson 2 during which students will relate their answers to the existing scientific model. Using this simulation, students will predict the relative amounts of potential and kinetic energy of the roller coaster at each of the benchmark spots. The simulation can run step-wise, allowing students to make a prediction for each step before proceeding to the next. This benchmark utilizes the Predict-Explain-Observe-Explain method (PEOE) as outlined by Dial et al (2009). Students will then apply the law of conservation of energy to an additional set of scenarios.

*Objectives*Students will be able to:

- relate kinetic and potential energy mathematically using the law of conservation of energy
- generate and interpret graphs and charts to describe the velocity of the object (Physics 4A)
- use photogates to determine kinetic energy of an object and various heights (Physics 4A)
- identify sources of kinetic energy that can be used in their projects (IPC 5D)

*TEKS Addressed*Physics Section 4

(A) generate and interpret graphs and charts describing different types of motion, including the use of real-time technology such as motion detectors or photogates;

Integrated Physics and Chemistry

(5) Science concepts. The student recognizes multiple forms of energy and knows the impact of energy transfer and energy conservation in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize and demonstrate that objects and substances in motion have kinetic energy such as vibration of atoms, water flowing down a stream moving pebbles, and bowling balls knocking down pins;

(B) demonstrate common forms of potential energy, including gravitational, elastic, and chemical, such as a ball on an inclined plane, springs, and batteries;

(D) investigate the law of conservation of energy;

investigation2.pdf | |

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benchmarklesson2.pdf | |

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benchmark_2_slides.pdf | |

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Simulation from PBS Learning Media: http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/hew06.sci.phys.maf.rollercoaster/energy-in-a-roller-coaster-ride/

Adapted in part from © The Physics Classroom (2009): http://www.physicsclassroom.com/curriculum/energy/energy4.pdf

Adapted in part from © The Physics Classroom (2009): http://www.physicsclassroom.com/curriculum/energy/energy4.pdf

## Week 3

**Investigation 3: "BYOB (Build Your Own Battery)"**

Students will construct batteries using household metals for electrodes and uncommon sources for electrolytes. On their own, students will create a hypothesis concerning the parts of the battery that influence the voltage the most. In groups, students will pick a particular combination of metals and try them out in different electrolytes, measuring the voltage of each. This particular inquiry is level 2, since the procedure and question are provided to students, but the explanation as to whether or not the electrolyte or metals affect the battery is something students explore on their own. Ideally, students will be able to dispel the misconception that the electrolyte is the source of the electrical energy, as changing the electrolyte does not majorly affect the voltage. After constructing batteries and recording voltages, the instructor will verify their results and students will proceed to answer questions about the inquiry. One of the questions in particular has students compare data.

**Investigation 4: "Resistance is Futile"**

Students will use an online simulation (located at this link) to perform experiments on DC circuits. On their own, students create a hypothesis for what the mathematical relationship is between voltage, current, and resistance. Then, they will follow the included procedure to assemble their digital circuits and measure current given resistance and voltage. After varying each for five data points, students will be asked to make their guess as to the mathematical relationship and compare it to their hypotheses. Then, they will be asked conceptual questions about extensions into parallel and series circuits, which will be investigated further in the benchmark lesson.

**Benchmark Lesson 3: Redox, Ohm's Law, and Power**

The attached presentation goes over the mathematics behind the two previous investigations. Students will learn how to use a reduction half-reaction table to predict the voltage of a one-element battery, and extend that into multicell batteries with the idea of a voltaic pile, with included classwide examples. Then, students will practice using Ohm's Law to predict current in a circuit and voltage drops across resistive components. Students will also get practice with effective resistance of series and parallel circuit components and power loss in resistive circuits. By breaking up this presentation by student activities and opportunities for students to apply what they just learned, students engage in active learning rather than passive learning, a distinction explored by McManus (2001). All of these parts will be explored in the formative assessment accompanying this part of the unit.

*Objectives*Students will be able to:

- identify parts of a battery and classify which parts can affect the voltage
- solve for the voltage of a multicell battery, given the metals used
- measure and interpret data to find a mathematical relationship for voltage, current, and resistance of a circuit
- identify trends in effective resistance when components are placed in series and in parallel
- solve for power loss through a resistive circuit, and predict energy consumption from using that circuit

*TEKS Addressed*Physics Section 5

(F) design, construct, and calculate in terms of current through, potential difference across, resistance of, and power used by electric circuit elements connected in both series and parallel combinations;

Integrated Physics and Chemistry Section 5

(B) demonstrate common forms of potential energy, including gravitational, elastic, and chemical, such as a ball on an inclined plane, springs, and batteries;

(F) evaluate the transfer of electrical energy in series and parallel circuits and conductive materials;

It should be noted that a significant portion of this assessment covers a particular discipline of chemistry not normally covered in preparation for end-of-course exams and isn't addressed in the TEKS, but is important for contextualization of the unit and sources of DC electrical energy

investigation34batteryconstructionanddcresistivecircuits.pdf | |

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benchmark_lesson_3.pdf | |

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## References

Bell, R. Smetana, L., & Binns. I. (2005). Simplifying inquiry instruction. The Science Teacher

Circuit Construction Kit (DC Only). (n.d.). Retrieved December 15, 2015, from https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/legacy/circuit-construction-kit-dc

Dial, K. Riddley, D., Williams, K., & Sampson V. (2009). Addressing misconceptions: A demonstration to help students understand the law of conservation of mass. The Science Teacher

McManus, D. A. (2001). The two paradigms of education and the peer review of teaching.

Circuit Construction Kit (DC Only). (n.d.). Retrieved December 15, 2015, from https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/legacy/circuit-construction-kit-dc

Dial, K. Riddley, D., Williams, K., & Sampson V. (2009). Addressing misconceptions: A demonstration to help students understand the law of conservation of mass. The Science Teacher

McManus, D. A. (2001). The two paradigms of education and the peer review of teaching.

*Journal of Geoscience Education,**49*(5), 423-434.